The main scientific priorities of Luna-26 are:

Lunar surface science

• Conctruction of the topographic map of lunar surface.
• Determination of subsurface structure and composition.
• Search for Hydrogen rich regions on the Moon.
• Determination of chemical and elemental composition of regolith.
• Determination of the heterogeneity of lunar gravity field.

Circumlunar science

• Studies of composition and dynamics of exosphere.
• Studies of solar wind – moon interaction.
• Studies for lunar magnetic anomalies and relevant plasma dynamics.
• Determination of spectra of micrometeors around Moon.